Water pollution: causes and sources

Due to the mixing of harmful elements in water resources by human activities and natural processes, water gets polluted and the chemical and biological properties of water deteriorate. Polluted water is very harmful to humans, as well as animals and plants and its use, becomes dangerous for life.

The use of polluted water causes many fatal diseases like paralysis, polio, cholera, TB, jaundice, typhoid, etc. Water Contamination is also directly related to the excessive use of water without thinking.

 Dirty water consumption is very high in cities, with many toxic chemicals through sewers and drains, which are dumped into natural sources of water. Dirty and polluted water coming out of industrial units is also pumped into rivers through drains. Water Contamination also spreads due to some natural reasons. Thus, there are two main causes of water pollution: natural and human.

Natural causes of water pollution

"Water pollution" Usually, during rains, the fast-flowing water goes into the sewers and at the same time, it contains minerals in the soil, leaves of trees, hummus (a black organic matter) which rot after the residues of the plants. goes

 If water is being collected somewhere, the soil contains toxic parts like arsenic, lead, and mercury, etc., then they accumulate within the water and pollute the water. When the quantity becomes excessive, the water becomes toxic.

In addition to more toxic substances, small amounts of toxins, such as metal elements, cobalt, molybdenum, tin, vanadium, nickel, barium, etc., are already naturally present in water.

Human causes of water pollution

Wastewater gets into clean water through various human activities and thus water gets polluted. Some such sources of water pollution are as follows:

1.Industrial waste

2.Agricultural waste

3.Domestic Waste


5.Radioactive waste

6.thermal pollution

7.Oil pollution

Industrial waste

The number of factories has increased manifold today due to rapid industrialization, although those factories are not being disposed of properly, leaving them directly into ponds, rivers, canals and alternative water sources. Because of this, aquatic organisms, plants, and animals are being adversely affected and at the same time, it is unfit to drink water.

In almost every industry, many materials are left unused after the production process known as industrial waste. These substances contain acids, alkalis, salts, oils, fats, and toxic chemicals and when they flow into the water, the water becomes toxic. Waste material from various industries like the textile industry, animal skin industry,  leather industry, liquor industry, pharmaceutical industry, paper industry, sugar industry, food processing industry, chemical industry, etc., are being flowed into water sources.

Most commercial wastes contain organic materials that are rotten by bacteria but this method is incredibly slow and water is contaminated due to this. Apart from these materials, plastic is also included in industrial wastes.

 In addition to these materials, plastics are also included in industrial wastes that are not as toxic as toxic chemicals, but it has been found that seabirds, fish and other sea creatures risk their lives by eating plastic residues. Huh. The natural color of pure drinking water is light brown, dark water coming out of color factories and industries have made it rare to actually find pure water.

Agricultural waste

To boost production, new strategies are being used in agriculture. Due to the Green Revolution, the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. has increased rapidly along with new technologies in agriculture, but on the other hand, our remarkable success in agriculture is giving value to the environment, which has to face heavy losses. 

Due to various farming practices, soil erosion has also increased considerably, disrupting the flow of rivers and causing erosion on their banks. The lakes are gradually leveling and their water is getting contaminated due to the deposition of mud and mud

Domestic waste

The sources of water get polluted due to bathing, washing clothes, bathing animals and cleaning utensils in ponds and canals. Household wastes generated as a result of various daily chores in homes such as rotten fruits and vegetables, dirty water of detergents, kitchen stove ash and other waste materials and sewage first flow into drains and finally water bodies.

Nowadays, synthetic detergents are being used more in the cleaning work, which has become a permanent source of water pollution by mixing in water sources. After domestic use such as bathing, washing, etc., polluted water flows through drains into rivers and ponds where the situation is already critical due to uncontrolled population pressure on water resources.


Disposal of excreta is also a serious problem due to population growth and sewage is directly flowing into rivers and canals, contaminating our main sources of water.

Sewage mainly consists of human excreta released from domestic and public toilets, and human excreta contains both organic and inorganic types of contaminants. Most of these contaminants are solid organic waste, dead micro-organisms and sometimes living bacteria. Due to the excess of organic materials, various types of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, and algae rapidly increase contaminated sewage.

In fact, the term water pollution was first used to draw attention to water pollution arising from human waste. If bacteria commonly found in human intestines are found in water, it is certainly a serious condition and such contaminated water is completely unfit for human use.

If untreated contaminated sewage is being mixed directly into the water sources through drainage, it certainly causes serious water pollution. Due to the excrement being done by open areas, humans, and animals, sewage gets mixed with rainwater directly into water sources and pollutes the water. Such pollution is called organic water pollution.

According to an estimate, 10 lakh people produce 5 lakh tons of sewage in a year, of which a large part goes directly into the sea passing through rivers. According to an estimate in India, out of 142 cities with a population of one lakh, only 8 cities have complete sewage disposal facilities. Out of these, only one operating system of waste disposal is available in 62 cities whereas no proper arrangement has been made in 72 cities.

Radioactive waste

Due to "Water Contamination" nuclear explosions, a large number of hot waste particles come into contact with air, then these particles spread far into the air and in many ways, these particles merge into more water sources than organic phenomena. Huh. And then through the food chain, these particles reach the human body.

 The dissolution of radioactive particles is extremely slow and due to this, they keep the water toxic for a long time. In addition, when nuclear tests are done underwater and then these waste particles directly dissolve in the water and pollute the water.

Thermal pollution

Nuclear power is mainly spreading thermal pollution through the method of generating electricity through excess steam in power-based power plants. Rivers and ponds are used for the prevention of hyperthermal effects of the various nuclear reactors of these plants. is. After use, this water is released back into lakes, rivers or the sea, which results in water temperature and adversely affecting aquatic life.

 This leads to a lack of oxygen in the aqueous environment. Increasing water temperature not only reduces the solubility of oxygen in the water but the amount of salt in the water also increases, which is extremely harmful to fish and other aquatic organisms.

Oily pollution

Oil pollution is spreading due to the flow of oil and oil waste by industrial plants into rivers and various sources of oil. Oil pollution has emerged as a serious threat in the rivers. The remaining oil after cooking, as well as the use of petrol and diesel in vehicles and their residues, is being immersed in some form.

In addition, oil pollution is spreading in oceans due to oil seeping into oceans from carriers, ships. Many times, the tankers of these ships have a huge fire. Accidents also cause oil spills in the oceans and cause oil pollution. According to an estimate, 10 million to 50 million tons of petroleum products leak into the sea every year.

Human causes of water pollution

Other reason

  •  People from villages, towns or cities who live along the rivers are dependent on the rivers for many activities along the rivers. The use of detergents, soaps, ashes, etc. for various rituals and activities such as religious prayers, cleaning, and immersion of idols and worship material, flower garlands, etc. pollution in rivers increased manifold.

  •  In addition, some cities are located on the banks of rivers where after a person dies, his body is thrown into the water. Carcass rotting produces bacteria that pollute the water apart from the stench.

  • It has been generally found that rivers on the edge of cities become highly impure as the waste of industries located in cities is often dumped into rivers without any treatment.

  • Even when cleaning agricultural pumps, for washing vehicles and agricultural equipment, contaminated water is dumped into rivers and hence pesticides and chemical fertilizers flow into rivers and rivers during this water Pollute. In this way, aquatic animals and other animals present in the polluted waters of rivers and the sea are causing destruction.

  • As a result of industrial enterprise, the quantity of factories has increased manifold nowadays, however, the waste generated by them is diverted into canals, ponds, and rivers and thus polluting it. This impure water is adversely affecting the animals and plants there, as this water is not suitable at all for drinking and other consumption.

  •  As a result of excessive population growth, large amounts of human waste flow into rivers and canals, polluting rivers and alternative water sources.

  • Waste generated in homes and factories, bandages thrown by hospitals, medicines, plaster, etc., flow into rivers and increase the risk of floods and other natural disasters along with alternative water source pollution.

  • People are bathing, washing clothes, bathing animals, especially in village ponds and canals, utensils are being cleaned which is polluting the water sources.

The conclusion

Water is an integral part of our environment in which we live. It is one of the basic necessities necessary for human life. A large part of the human body is water and because of this, without clean water, a human can live only a few days. The lack of clean water cannot imagine the life of any person and even the entire human civilization can be in danger due to the lack of clean water. Despite knowing all this, human beings continue to pollute water from rivers, ponds, wells, lakes, etc., which is definitely a dangerous situation.

Our water sources have been negatively affected due to population growth, industrialization, and other reasons. Even our sacred river the Ganges could not remain intact due to water pollution. Previously, the water of the Ganges River was clean even after maintaining it for many years, but today this situation has changed. Together with the Ganges, the water sources of many other rivers have also been contaminated.

Despite the law enacted by the government, polyethylene bags are used openly and are thrown away after use, which is found in water sources and is contaminated if the water stinks or If the taste is not good, the water does not It is drinkable, but due to lack of water, people also use contaminated water under compulsion.

In fact, rivers are the pillar of the ecological system and it is an integral part of the creation of human, flora and fauna life. In fact, a river has a complete ecological unit in which, in an ideal state, there is a balance between all organisms and a dietary chain is formed between them, but this is now ending due to water pollution. Biodiversity is declining as the entire food chain becomes unbalanced and many aquatic organisms and many other animals are likely to become extinct.

If we have to protect human civilization from the dangers caused by water pollution, then it is necessary to take measures to prevent the degradation of this natural resource. Appropriate measures must be taken to protect water, which is like the nectar for life,

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