"Air pollution" is extremely dangerous for the health of humans and other living things. Air pollution is considered the main factor of mist and acid rain in the atmosphere. In addition, air pollution is a major cause of many diseases such as cancer and other respiratory diseases that are fatal to humans and other organisms. Air pollution is constantly causing the problem of global warming and damaging the ozone layer. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution was the leading cause of deaths of 7.5 million people worldwide in 2014.


Air pollution: sources and causes


Most of the pollution of air is due to unwanted and harmful substances like chemicals, dust, smoke coming out of vehicles and harmful gases present in our environment. Fumes from industries and the use of chemicals in agriculture have increased air pollution.


The rapid increase in the world's population has led to increased exploitation of natural resources. Due to housing problems arising in the big city due to increasing industrialization, the population of these cities increased day by day. To solve this problem, people have built settlements (huts) where there is not enough drainage system.


The increase in means of transportation also increases when it occurs as the number of engines, buses, airplanes, scooters, etc. increase, the smoke emanating from these vehicles is continuously entering the atmosphere, polluting the environment.


Deforestation has increased air pollution as trees help reduce pollution in the atmosphere. Plants absorb harmful carbon dioxide pollution for their food and provide oxygen gases that drive the life cycle, but humans have indiscriminately harvested them for their residential and agricultural activities. In addition, nuclear tests include the use of atomic bombs. , which has a fatal effect on vegetation and animals.


Sources of air pollution

Various factors are responsible for the spread of air pollution in cities and rural areas.


Factors responsible for spreading air pollution in cities


The biggest source of pollution in cities is polluted smoke generated from vehicles and industrial installations. Carbon monoxide gas emitted from air conditioners and vehicles in cities is one of the major air pollutants in the city. It is a poisonous colorless gas produced by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Other sources of air pollution in cities include dust, dirt produced by the construction industry and factories. Poisonous air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide, etc. that emanate from factories and automobiles are the major causes of air pollution. All industries and manufacturing plants emit air pollution and hence they contribute significantly to generating acid rain in cities.

 Chemicals used for household cleaning and painting purposes also contribute to polluting the environment due to inadequate ventilation in the interior of homes. The city is already experiencing air pollution in the interior.


Factors responsible for air pollution in rural areas


Although most urban factors are responsible for air pollution, rural areas are also contributing to air pollution. Tractors used in villages for agricultural purposes are causing pollution in the area and hence the processing of dirt in space during farming is playing an important role in polluting the air.

The pollution caused by the volcanic eruption is due to a large amount of volcanic ash and lava generated on the surface of the Earth. As far as air pollution is concerned, the situation has become very bad due to both natural and human reasons.


Due to air pollution

Air pollution, in general, negatively impacts the environment and life. The sources of air pollution can be divided into two parts-

(1) Natural Source, (2) Human Source


Natural factors responsible for air pollution

Pollutants that pollute the air generated from natural sources are as follows -
  • Smoke and carbon dioxide produced by fires in the forests (Smoke is generated from large quantities of fires in the forest that surround nearby villages and cities, causing deadly pollution to humans and other organisms).
  •  Methane gas emitted from decomposition materials in swamps.
  • carbon dioxide.
  •  Bacteria and viruses generated from wastes etc.
  •  Carbon dioxide is free from flower pollen.
  •  Cosmic dust caused by the collision of comets, asteroids, and meteors, etc. with Earth.
  •  Evaporation of natural radioactive and organic compounds
  •  Erosion of rocks through the air.
  •  Dust blowing during a storm.
  •  volcanic eruption.


Human source

In addition to mining operations and internal pollution, humans are responsible for polluting the air through fossil fuels, agricultural activities, gases and smoke generated from industries and vehicles. Pollution is mainly due to the burning of construction activities like the combustion of oil materials, coal, wood, hay, and fossil fuels. Motor vehicles produce highly toxic gases such as hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), which gives rise to air pollution.

Construction of residential and commercial activities as well as road construction activities etc. is also responsible for air pollution.

Air pollution caused by humans can be divided into the following processes.

  • Petrol combustion in vehicles
  • Combustion for thermal electric energy
  • Fuel-burning process
  • Combustion in domestic operation
  • From agricultural activities
  • From Molecular Energy Projects
  • By industrial manufacture
  • Using solvents
  • For other reasons

From the combustion process

There are usually 2 forms of pollution - indoor and outdoor pollution. The change of state requires energy for the manufacture of bricks, cement, etc. The energy used for domestic works comes from coal, wood, LPG, kerosene, etc. Burning those fuels produces greenhouse gases, CO, dioxide, etc. And incomplete burning of fuels produces many types of hydrocarbons and cyclic compounds. This type of combustion has 2 effects on the surrounding environment. On one hand, these harmful gases pollute the air and on the other hand the amount of oxygen present in the air decreases which is life-threatening.

There is an additional energy requirement within the operation of vehicles and machines etc. This energy is obtained by the combustion of various forms of fuel. External causes of pollution include the use of gasoline or diesel as fuel for combustion in buses, cars, trucks, motorcycles, scooters,  rail, etc., many of which emit black smoke that pollutes the air. The smoke of diesel vehicles includes hydrocarbons, gas and sulfur oxides, and micro-carbon compounds. Gas released from vehicles contains carbon monoxide and lead. Lead is also a type of air pollutant material.

According to an estimate, the amount of oxygen of 1140 people in a minute is equal to the pollution spread by a motor vehicle. Nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide are also produced by the combustion of diesel and petrol in vehicles, which produce chemical mist combined with hydrocarbons in sunlight. This mist is very dangerous for humans. In 1952, fog engulfed the city of London for five days, killing 4,000 and suffering from heart disease and bronchitis.

According to an estimate, 630 tons of sulfur dioxide, 270 tons of nitrogen oxide, 60 tons of particles, 2040 tons of carbon dioxide are emitted by vehicles every day in India. In most thermal power plants in India, coal is used as a fuel that burns carbon dioxide, smoke, and some other gases.

Indian coal has 30 to 40 percent fly ash and sulfur content less than one percent as compared to other countries' coal, causing a 200 MW Indian power plant to produce 50 tons of sulfur dioxide and more than 50 tons of soot. The ash produced by burning coal is thrown out as waste. This ash flies through the air and pollutes the atmosphere.

Human activities are responsible for pollution



The following human activities are responsible for pollution.

1.Smoke emanating from vehicles

The smoke emanating from vehicles is spreading the number of pollutants responsible for air pollution worldwide. The combustion of oil and other fossil fuels in vehicles emits toxic gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and pollute the air. The effects of air pollution caused by vehicles can be clearly seen in all cities.

2.Generating electricity

Coal and other fossil fuels are widely used to operate power plants. The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity in these plants causes large-scale production of various pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides that pollute the air.

3.Chimney emission

Manufacturing plants continue to have fossil fuels emitted by chimneys for a long time. Carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and various chemical gases are added to the air in the smoke emitted by the chimney and propagate air pollution. The oil refinery industry also produces large amounts of hydrocarbons in the air that are dangerous pollutants.

4.Construction Industry

Emissions from manufacturing industries are an important factor in the spread of air pollution. The smoke that comes out of such factories contains many gases and harmful particles that enter the atmosphere and cause air pollution. Air quality is getting worse everywhere due to the continuous mixing of nitrogen, sulfur, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes into the air.

5.Indoor air pollution

Indoor air pollution is spread by many chemicals such as lead and paint used in cleaning and coal, wood, LPG, kerosene, etc. Used in the kitchen.

Chemicals are used in various functions in the home or offices and where there is less ventilation can be fatal. Hydrocarbons are found in solvents used to polish furniture and make spray paint. When the furniture is polished or painted, these hydrocarbons fly through the air and increase pollution.

6.Molecular energy projects

Atomic bombs and isotopes that generate nuclear energy are temporary. At the time of the explosion, they spread to a distant atmosphere and then fell to Earth like an incubator that had a fatal impact on the atmosphere. The impact of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was observed for a long time.

7.Animal body

India has the tradition of removing the skin of dead animals. People take dead animals from settlements and leave their skins outdoors. When the corpse of the animals begins to rot, it causes a very bad smell, which results in air pollution.

8. Do not clean the toilet

If there is no regular cleaning of public and private toilets in any area, then the air there will surely be contaminated.

Decomposition of garbage waste and uncleaned drains

People often throw trash on the streets or through drains in their homes, which causes the bad smell to spread and this problem develops due to a poor drainage facility that causes viruses from various diseases and affects human health. It is.

9.Agricultural work

To increase crop yields, farmers use fertilizers based on ammonia, which is a harmful air pollutant. In addition to this, farmers also use many types of toxic pesticides in the fields to keep their fields safe. These pesticides emit many types of unwanted chemicals in the air pollution environment, which increases air pollution.

10.Extraction of the earth to extract ore

Activities such as continuous drilling, blasting, etc. They are used to remove minerals and carbon from various metals from the uterus of the earth. In addition to these activities, transportation is also used for this purpose. In addition to methane, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, etc., dust particles from drilling and blasting also pollute the air.


Environmental pollutant gases

The following gases, which are the main types of air pollutants, are the following


1.Carbon Monoxide Gas: This toxic gas emitted mainly by cars is a dangerous air pollutant. In addition to the smoke emanating from vehicles, indoor air conditioners, refrigerators and heaters also emit carbon monoxide gas.

2.Sulfur Dioxide Gas: Combustion of fossil fuels produces sulfur dioxide gas which is highly toxic and is also responsible for acid rain (acid rain).

3.Nitrogen oxide gas: Nitrogen dioxide gas also has a significant contribution to the production of acid rain.

4.Ozone Gas: Ozone is good and bad. Harmful ozone gas is close to the groundwater level of our atmosphere, which can cause asthma and other respiratory disorders. This gas is produced in the chemical reaction of pollutants emitted from vehicles, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, chemical plants and other sources in the presence of sunlight, but the ozone is 6–30 miles above the surface of the biosphere ( Biosphere). The layer also protects us from ultraviolet rays.

5.Particulate Matter: In the sum of all the solid and liquid particles present in the air, these contaminated elements enter our lungs in the form of smoke emanating from vehicles and factories, causing respiratory problems.
Air pollution: sources and causes-2


Measures to prevent air pollution.


The factors of air pollution can be controlled through the development and use of green energy. This is the reason why governments around the world are focusing on developing green energy.

The best way to control air pollution is to prevent air pollution factors. By regularly checking the air quality, we can get detailed information on air pollution from a particular place and try to prevent them.

The use of solar and wind energy has also proved effective to prevent air pollution. They pollute less air than conventional energy sources.


Promote the use of public transport.

We should use more and more public transport. If we all do this, then the number of cars on the road will be reduced and air pollution can be controlled to a great extent.


Use energy resources wisely

It is a bitter truth that many fossil fuels generate electricity and cause large amounts of air pollution. Therefore, we must use fossil fuels wisely and focus on the development and expansion of water-based energy projects to reduce the amount of pollution.


Conclusion

Air pollution is not a problem that cannot be resolved. Many cities in the world have shown how air pollution can be controlled. If we really take air pollution seriously, we must take drastic measures. These steps are almost the same as England, Singapore, and China. In fact, according to the orders of the National Green Court, there is a provision to prohibit the driving of a 15-year motor vehicle, but vehicle owners and transport agencies have rarely followed this prohibition.



Being an emerging and developing country, the eyes of the whole world are directed to India today and we are expected to play an important role in the fight against pollution, which is the main factor in increasing global warming. In addition to increasing the temperature of the earth, climate change is also becoming a cause for concern throughout the world.




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