Today it is true that no creature can survive without air. The element of air that keeps us alive is oxygen gas. Currently, there is a gradual depletion of ozone due to the increased use of many types of chemicals and indiscriminate felling of trees. Due to the decomposition of the ozone layer over the years, the ozone layer has had many holes, and no harmful radiation is entering the atmosphere. The decomposition of the ozone layer increases the negative effects of diseases such as cancer.

what is ozone layer depletion causes& effects

what is ozone layer depletion?

"The ozone layer"  is a type of protective shield that protects the Earth from ultraviolet rays coming from the Sun. It is located about 20 to 40 kilometers above the Earth's surface. This layer acts to prevent the sun's harmful ultraviolet. When it arrives on Earth, it is able to protect trees, plants, animals and the environment.

Artificial chemicals such as halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and chlorofluorocarbons are also known as ozone degradable substances, which are the main causes of this problem. After being excreted on the surface, these compounds enter the stratosphere and emit halogen atoms there through a process called photovoltage. This causes the decomposition of oxygen (O2) into ozone (O3), which causes the number of ozone Decreases.

Who discovered the ozone layer and how?

The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by Henri Bushen and French physicist Charles Fabri, with scientists concluding that some elements were absorbing essential ultraviolet rays, creating a dark region in the spectrum and in the ultraviolet part. When these scientists looked at the spectrum of light coming from the Sun, they came to know that some were colors of wavelength less than 310 nm, it did not come to Earth by solar radiation! This part of the spectrum is called the ultraviolet part

That part of the spectrum of light that was not visible from the Sun perfectly matched an element called ozone, which has led scientists to discover that ozone in the Earth's atmosphere is the element that absorbs ultraviolet rays.

Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion

The causes of ozone layer depletion are broadly divided into natural causes and man-made causes. Man-made effects are many more than natural causes. Both these types of effects are described below -

Natural reason

Apart from chemicals, it is believed that some other natural phenomena originating in the stratosphere such as sunlight and winds are responsible for affecting the ozone layer. The losses caused by it are less than about 2 -3% and temporary. It is also believed that volcanic eruptions also mainly contribute to the decay of the ozone layer.


Indiscriminate cutting of trees on earth also causes the ozone layer to decay. Due to the cutting of trees, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere decreases, so ozone gas molecules are not formed.

Reason made by man

The indiscriminate use of a chlorine-based substance causes the depletion of the ozone layer. They are widely used in many manufacturing plants, aerosols and refrigerants and when released into the air, they have a detrimental effect on the ozone layer. However, it has been found that only one chlorine atom can destroy about 100,000 ozone molecules.

Air circulates chlorine-based substances in the stratosphere. Ozone molecules are unstable and react and break down the chlorine atom in CFCs, resulting in the formation of an oxygen molecule and a single free-flowing oxygen atom. Chlorine in the atmosphere is prone to extreme danger,

The processes involve many reactions, but some simplified reactions are as follows:
C lO + O —–> C l + O 2
C l + O 3 —–> C lO + O 2

Net effect: O 3 + O —–> 2 O 2

In addition, chemicals such as methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halogen and substances such as foam, dyes, air conditioners, refrigerators, plastics, etc., which we use mainly in daily life, cause depletion of the ozone layer.

These substances are mainly used in electronic entrepreneurs. The gases used in air conditioners are harmful to ozone because the molecules of these gases are capable of destroying millions of ozone molecules.

Carbon tetrachloride: also used as selected solvents and fire extinguishers.

Methylchloroform: It is commonly used in industries such as steam degradation, cleaning, chemical technology, and adhesives.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs): they are used instead of CFCs, but they are not harmful to the ozone layer like CFCs.

Helen: they are used as fire retardants such as water or fire extinguishing chemicals.

what is ozone layer depletion causes& effects-3

Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion

Pores produced through the depletion of the ozone layer allow harmful ultraviolet rays to enter the Earth's ecosystem. The sun's ultraviolet rays are taken into account for a variety of environmental and health-related problems.

1. Effect on Vegetation

  • UV radiation affects the system of photosynthesis in plant life and also changes the variety and timing of plant-assisted flora.
  • The plant boom is without delay from UV-B radiation.

2. Effect on people

Accelerated skin aging: Due to the harmful consequences of ultraviolet rays, humans with white holes and skin have to suffer rashes and other skin diseases.

Eye damage: Direct exposure to UV rays can cause problems such as image playing cards (blurring) and cataracts.

Skin cancer: The promotion of ultraviolet rays causes many forms of skin cancer in humans. These include malignant cancers, basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

Various effects: It affects the DNA of humans and animals. These are related to lung issues such as breathing, allergies, and similar problems. Disease, direct propagation of ultraviolet rays. If a pregnant woman comes into contact with those rays, they must face the dangerous effects of irreparable pregnancy loss.

3. Effects on Amphibians

Ozone deficiency affects the survival cycle of many species of amphibians at multiple stages. Some of its following results are given below.

  •  Accommodates conduct and habits.
  • It causes deformity in some species.
  • It damages the retina of the eye, causing blindness.
  • These inhibit the growth and development of larvae.

4. Impact on the marine environment

  • A special type of ultraviolet rays penetrate into the sea for several kilometers and damage marine life.
  • Plant planktons and improved bacterioplankton are at risk of ultraviolet rays. Ultraviolet radiation has a profound impact on the lives of microbes that affect the food chain as well as the entire ecosystem.

5. Other effects

In addition to these, ozone, present within low ecosystems, acts as a pollutant and greenhouse gas, caused by international warming and weather. Studies have proved that much less atmospheric ozone has a longer lifespan than stratospheric ozone, causing less damage.

Who is responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer?

The decomposition of the ozone layer is particularly responsible for industries caused by humans, which are found in almost all leading countries, including unitary states. India, Europe, and China are the main causes of chemical compounds that damage the ozone layer. It is largely responsible that the governments of many countries have banned the use of chemical compounds that damage the ozone layer, however, due to the fact of corruption it is not possible to use the government that prohibits them. They should be banned in the most effective way. ,

  These chemical substances are used for their personal benefit. To protect the ozone layer against harm, most people should be educated about it and taught to demonstrate to industries that are causing pollution. And if seen, their court cases are related to their officers in the United States. And institutions are doing a lot to save the ozone layer.

Measures to prevent the decomposition of the ozone layer

Decomposition of the ozone layer, increased use of many types of chemicals, and indiscriminate felling of trees are rapidly reducing the ozone layer. The solution to the problem of ozone depletion is very simple and we can adapt it very easily in our daily lives.

 We should encourage definitive change so that ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are not released. We must plant more trees to maintain oxygen content in the upper atmosphere and increase the number of ozone molecules. To reduce the negative impact on the ozone layer, we should advise industry owners and its operations to use less of these substances and processes.

The conclusion

Ozone deficiency is a problem that needs our immediate attention. The main reason for the depletion of the ozone layer is the emission of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. Due to holes in the ozone layer, harmful rays of ultraviolet enter the Earth's atmosphere and produce a variety of harmful consequences.

 Such international initiatives can significantly reduce the production of harmful chemicals and can also be very useful in preventing damage to the ozone layer. But still, every person should contribute more to the preservation of the ozone layer and take necessary measures in their daily lives. So we can provide a healthy and safe environment for ourselves and plants and animals


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