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Monday, May 6, 2019

URBANIZATION: DEFINITION, EFFECTS & SOLUTIONS

URBANIZATION DEFINITION, EFFECTS, AND SOLUTIONS


The definition of urbanization

In today's times, urbanization has become quite common in developing and developed countries. As a result of increasing urbanization, many frightening problems are emerging in the cities; For example, unemployment, crime, population growth, problems of women, lack of housing, lack of electricity and water supply, pollution, drinking and other drug abuse, traffic problems, etc.

"Urbanization" is a gradual process, which depends on all political, economic and geographical reasons. Generally, urbanization refers to the development of cities and villages, which is why the urban population is increasing in today's world. Therefore, urbanization can also be seen as a progressive increase in people in towns and cities.

The transfer of population from rural areas to urban areas is called urbanization. Urbanization has become one of the most important aspects of economic growth around the world today, the process of urbanization depends on the gradual development of some industrial urban centers, as well as the relocation of the remaining population of the urban areas from the urban areas. Because both urbanization and economic growth are interconnected. The economic growth of a country reflects the increase in the per capita income of that country.


Due to social and economic pressures, backward areas move towards urban areas in search of jobs because newly established industries and other auxiliary activities provide more employment opportunities for people migrating to cities. The pace of urbanization has increased greatly due to industrial development, but when the proportion of the population of the entire population of the country is very high, then as a result, the growing portion of the population lives in urban places rather than in rural areas.


The reason for urbanization

The main reason for urbanization is that the individuals believe that rural area units are jam-packed with difficulties and challenges. Therefore, whenever individuals fly to cities and cities in an exceedingly sizable amount, it provides rise to the event of urbanization.

We can divide the prevalence of urbanization within the following sections:


Social Benefits:

 with the exception of this, there's plenty of social advantages to measure in cities as a result of individuals living in cities have sensible facilities to measure life; good education, cleanliness, home, healthcare, amusement and therefore the level of fine living conditions dig from. For these reasons, individuals from everywhere the country area unit migrating and cities so they will get of these facilities that aren't presently offered in rural areas.


Employment Opportunities: 


 The excellent employment opportunities offered within the urban areas encourage individuals to come back to the cities, who are transferred from the village extensively, resulting in better health, education, traffic facilities for entertainment There are amenities.


Commercialization: 


Business conjointly plays a very important role in urbanization. In today's era, there has been a major increase within the transport, service and business transactions of products, that has a light-emitting diode to the emergence of the many trendy selling establishments and dealings strategies. this is often conjointly a very important contribution within the increase within the range of cities. there's a general idea among folks that exploitation and business, a lot of opportunities area unit offered in cities than in rural areas.

Urbanization of rural areas:

In several places, thanks to the activities of mineral and natural resources or different farming activities, it's conjointly growing quickerit's a well known proven fact that thanks to increasing productivityeconomic process, and rate conjointly increase and new employment opportunities area unit offeredthanks to these several opportunities of promotion area unit offered so their social and economic standing is nice.




URBANIZATION DEFINITION, EFFECTS & SOLUTIONS-4


Effects of urbanization

Urbanization can have both positive effects and negative effects-


Positive Effects: Urban areas offer many amenities which can not be provided by small-town shops. Due to the status of a population due to being in a city, we have many types of markets available. Due to which we get many shopping opportunities which we do not find in rural areas. There are many types of educational and recreational facilities, including a public transport system, water, and drainage facilities. There are shopping malls and other places in many cities that are open to public entertainment, food, and cultural events till late in the night. Although many of these shops are run by national and international groups, in these areas, it becomes difficult for small businesses to grow.  New employment opportunities are created through urbanization, in which facilities such as improvements in technology and infrastructure, improvements in traffic and communication facilities, and besides, they have quality education facilities.




Negative Effects: In urban areas, the problem of unemployment is very high, especially in written people. It is quite a lot. About one-third of the urban population lives below the poverty line. According to an estimate, half of the people living in unemployed youth are in metros. The reason for this is that people are migrating from rural areas to urban areas, which is becoming a cause of increasing unemployment in cities every day because even the typical cost for basic items in urban communities is very high. 



There is no city where people are not troubled by the traffic problem, in addition to the people living in cities, they have to face considerable challenges in the use of the transport system. When more people go to towns and cities then due to population growth, dependency on automobile increases due to the work of people, which often leads to traffic problems and air pollution.Much of the use of vehicles by logos Due to the increase in air pollution in cities in a considerable amount of time. In urban areas, most people use most of the car to go to work and this creates a serious traffic problem. As cities are increasing in dimension every day, people go to the market to fulfill their needs, which ultimately leads to increased traffic congestion.


 As the population and size of cities are increasing rapidly, the problem of garbage disposal is equally alarming. Large amounts of waste from big cities can cause many serious health problems in a common man. In many places, there is no proper arrangement for the disposal of wastes, instead of rubbish, instead of giving rats and flies, which cause many types of infectious diseases. People living near such waste and raw drains easily become victims of diseases such as poultry, diarrhea, malaria, plague, typhoid.


Increasing crime in cities is becoming a major challenge. Which often causes many social problems, including vandalism, crime, violence, and drug misuse. In fact, in the surrounding areas of urban areas, there are social crimes like rape, murder, kidnapping, riots, assault,  and theft. Poverty-related crimes are also the highest in fast-growing urban areas. The issue of urban wrongdoing is ending up increasingly complex nowadays since offenders regularly get insurance from lawmakers, administrators and exclusive class of urban culture. Many of these criminals have reached high positions using their money and muscle.


Today we have reached that stage where water supply is not available in every city as needed. In many cities, people are getting water from the municipal corporation for half-day only and that too, not going regularly, every other day. This problem becomes even more alarming in the days of drought, whereas at this time they need the most water. These days people struggle with a lot of water crisis.


Due to urbanization, slums of slums have also increased in the cities. The cost of living in urban areas is quite high. People in big cities are unable to arrange their living. Due to this, their people make illegal slums in huge quantities. In other places, these areas are inhabited by illegal immigrants who are involved in many activities.


 A lot of people live in very few places in big cities. This is the reason that the problems of the population in these cities are increasing day by day and in addition to this, many people are looking for a good life in cities and towns. A person can not come anywhere according to his wishes. The number of vehicles is that it is difficult to walk on the roads. People in rural and backward areas always want to settle in urban areas, which force them to live in tight areas.
 Due to increasing attraction towards cities, urbanization is increasing rapidly, due to the increase in the number of the urban population in the last few years. Thereby, there has been a major problem of housing in cities. This is because there is no place for such a large number of habitations in the cities. In urban areas, we remain unaware of our neighbors, along with the lack of public resources, poverty, unemployment, and expensive construction products. is.



Solutions to urbanization challenges.

The problems faced by urbanization need to be addressed. Some of the measures by which cities can reduce problems, despite the many major challenges around the world today, governments and people have not been able to find any complete solution to this problem. Some solutions to these problems have been discussed below.

Urbanization In today's time, the government needs to increase the concept of continuous urbanization. Land use and inter-governmental transfer should be done in accordance with the number of migrant workers going to the cities. With this, we need to think about national urbanization policy and urban planning, institutional reform, financial nutrition. Local governments should be encouraged to improve housing registration policies in favor of urbanization.

Laws should be passed to build sustainable and environmentally friendly cities with development techniques so that people can get safe and pollution-free housing in urban areas. Protecting natural ecosystems, private investment should be encouraged to use natural resources and to make more jobs. By which we can create more jobs for the urban population by using tourism promotion and sustainable use of natural resources.
Medical health clinics oriented towards family planning options in urban areas should be made accessible to the purpose of controlling disease and population growth in the entire urban area. Effective health to help reduce the high rate of major population growth in urban areas. Must provide campaigns and counseling for clinic and family planning
Industry and construction work are mostly connected to the cities. The presence of such industries can provide employment opportunities and additional taxes locally. On the other hand, the presence of industry and construction pollution in urban centers.

Continuous use of urban resources ought to be inspired by the idea of environmental protection. The environmental campaign, lack of electricity and water system, pollution, drinking and different abuse, housing shortage, communication and traffic issues, etc. The administration of the urban areas ought to make sure that adequate essential infrastructure like food, clean water, health, education, electricity and sanitation area unit on the market to the folks of the urban areas. additionally, to the current, the opportunities for employment and wealth acquisition of the whole population ought to even be on the market, in order that folks will relish additional services and pay their time consequently.

Finally, within the method of urbanization, public governance ought to be improved with social management in addition.


Urbanization in the united state

Like many other countries, urbanization is happening in us too fast. This has led to the rapid development of both public and private sector.
By the calculation of rural and urban population, it shows that urbanization has taken place very fast in Us, the fastest growth in the 21st century is seen.

There has been a considerable increase in some parts of Us and industrialization at a large level. This has led to rapid development in these areas and employment opportunities have become available, here is the reason why people are fleeing very fast towards these areas.


The intensity of urbanization has increased greatly in Us. Unfortunately, this rapid urbanization can also lead to unemployment levels in Us, apart from this, the negative level has decreased, but it is very low and the employment opportunities are not available as per the population of the people.



Conclusion

Current development is required in urbanization, i.e. is closely related to the economic, social and environmental phases of the environment. No one should be left behind to use basic structure and social services.

All major programs of urban development are mostly affected by resources. Since the beginning of these schemes, their main objective is to reduce urban development, but only 3-4 percent of the total plan expenditure in the urban area is allocated for development services and resources. Urbanization definition, Effects & Solutions can be found in various parts of the world, Affects environmental and development conditions significantly, to strengthen and develop relationships between urban and rural areas. Integrated policies are needed to improve the lives of both R.E. and rural residents.


In this, work should be done for the poor, education, housing, health care, good jobs and security in the cities, so that their quality of life can be improved. Currently, many countries in the world are not able to modernize their cities. There is no doubt that careful and governed urbanization can make human life more comfortable and well-meaning so that the world can achieve new highs of beauty.

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