"Acid Rain" is considered a major problem today, we need to pay special attention to it. Its effect has adverse effects on forests, freshwater, plants, aquatic animals, soil, and basic structures. This also causes the destruction of insects and aquatic animals.

Thousands of bridges, buildings, and natural structures are damaged every year due to this. Apart from this, it also has a bad effect on human health. Many harmful effects of acid rain, such as loss of biodiversity, increase in acidity of clay and destruction of forests, etc. In order to prevent the occurrence of this environmental disaster, we should use different types of solutions to prevent gases coming from acid rain. as soon as possible

Acid Rain: Definition, Reason, Effect &  Solution

Are you excited to know what acid rain is?

    Definition of acid rain:-

    Hi, friend, chemical equation of acid rain is as follows. When chemical reactions occur with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, acid precipitation occurs. Thus, in this way, we can say that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are the main factors in acid rain.

    Acid precipitation can be converted into other forms, hydrogen ion (low pH) is high level or in simple words it is acidic. Acid precipitation occurs due to the emission of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. This acidic rain reacts with water molecules in the atmosphere to produce water. Nitrogen oxides are naturally produced by the friction of electricity and sulfur dioxide is produced by a volcanic eruption.

    Here are some important facts about acid rain:

    When acid rain is mixed in water bodies like lakes, streams or rivers, then it changes the pH level of water and makes it adverse for aquatic life.

    Due to acid rain, some lakes have been declared completely dead.
    The pH level of acid rain is 4.3 (similar to orange juice or vinegar), whereas pure water is pH 7.
    Rain is not the only type of rain but mist, ice, and even dust particles make it acidic.
    The effects of acid rain can be removed only in the form of an acid.
    Due to an abundant presence in sulfur and nitrogen dioxide environments, these acids are one of the major causes of rainfall.
    In addition to sulfur and nitrogen oxides, volcanic eruptions, coal and plant damage, etc. also promote the side effects of acid rain.
    The odor and taste of acid rain are usually the same as normal rainfall.
    Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide promote acid rain, and it also creates diseases like cancer, asthma and heart diseases.
    Acid rain can also destroy the process of photosynthesis of the leaves and the supply of nutrients. By changing the acid level of soil, soil, and plant conditions make it poisonous.

    Are you excited?

    Causes of Acid Rain:-

    "Acid rain" is caused by both manmade and natural sources. But its main function is the combustion of fossil fuels, which causes sulfur (SO2) and nitrogen (NOx) oxide emitted.

    The man-made factor of acid rain

    Human activities are also the main cause of acid rain.
    Automobiles, factories, and electricity gases are also factors in producing acid rain. The use of coal for electrical power generation, in particular, leads to gaseous emissions in acid rain. Burning coal produces nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. Traffic resources and factories produce high amounts of harmful gases. It has become a major problem in cities where a large number of traffic resources are used. These gas react with water and oxygen in the atmosphere, causing high amounts of acid rain in these areas.

    Natural causes of acid rain

    The main natural factor of acid rain is a volcanic eruption. Elements that make acid in the substances released from volcanic eruptions are present. Thereby, the emission of acid from the boundary in the rain, which takes other forms like mist and ice. Acid rain is also created due to the destruction of a tree or plant in the forest. Apart from this, the fall of celestial electricity also produces nitric oxide. It works with water molecules to form nitric acid, which produces acid rain
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    Effects of Acid Rain:-

    The adverse side effects of acid rain are not limited to one place, it has been shown that due to acid rain, there are adverse effects on humans, plants, animals, and even basic infrastructure. They also affect far too vast areas away from these sources; Water pollution increases with acid rain, in which the living organisms begin to die.acid rain is sometimes referred to as Lake Slayer in American and Western European countries as acid rain has been the major factor for the death of aquatic organisms in lakes, ponds, and water reserves. Sulfur dioxide emitted from factories located in Britain and Germany And due to nitrous oxide, there is acid rain in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. As a result, most of the regions face serious threats to biodiversity. IA Now we all know how acid rain affects all these people.

    Impacts on Soil and Biological: Soil Acid is highly affected by rainfall. Due to acid rain, the chemical composition of the microorganisms and soils found in the soil is damaged or reversed. To maintain the continuity of biological activity, the soil needs to be maintained at a favorable pH level. The acid rain merges in the water and increases the pH level of the soil, which affects the biological and chemical activity surrounding the soil, due to which some microorganisms do not adapt themselves to the pH level changes. They are destroyed. This hydrogen ion pulls off the nutrients such as calcium and magnesium from the soil.

    Impact on human health: Acid rain has adverse effects on human communities and animals. It causes respiratory and skin diseases, irritation of the eyes, and greater concentration of acids also causes diseases of the heart and lungs. Although humans are not directly influenced by acid rain, the use of contaminated thin water causes many types of health problems. In addition, breathing in the dry deposits of gases causes serious health problems. Such as lungs and heart problems, and diseases like asthma and dama.

    Affects the aquatic environment: Acid precipitation falls directly on the aqueous bodies. Acids are found in the rivers, lakes, and streams, through drains, roads, canals. Due to getting acid in the water, the overall pH of the water decreases. If the pH falls below level 4.8, then it is damaged for the existence of aquatic life. Due to acid rain, fish, and other aquatic life are highly affected due to its influence, biodiversity has to face a serious crisis. Due to acid rain, many species of fish, plants, and other species including keto of the lakes and rivers have become extinct.

    Harmful to vegetation and forests:  Acid rain has an adverse effect on forests as all the biological activities of tree plantations, such as light synthesis, are slowed due to acid rain, which causes plants and plants to dry up. Trees and plants are mostly covered with acidic mist and clouds. As a result, many trees and plants are destroyed. Acid damages the leaves and damages their bark and growth. Due to acid rain the forests of countries like Germany, Poland and Switzerland are being damaged

    Acid rain and decay of the ozone layer

    The ozone layer acts as a protective shield for the entire globe. It stops the harmful purple rays of the sun in the upper atmosphere, the ozone layer of the gas prevents the sun's harmful UV rays from entering the Earth's atmosphere and absorbing it.

    The main reason for the lack of ozone layer is also the emissions of chemicals called CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons. Since they reach the upper atmosphere and chlorine reacts with ultraviolet rays to free atoms. These chlorine atoms react with ozone gas, causing the ozone layer to be destroyed.

    The decay of the ozone layer is not directly related to the problem of acid rain. It is true that between these two there is a subtle link. Because both are the results of industrial processes, although both are such serious problems. The ones on which we need immediate attention.

    Solutions to Reduce Acid Rain:-
     To reduce greenhouse emissions, it should be decided internationally, due to acid rain trees, forests, wildlife, and historical buildings and monuments will be destroyed in the same way.

    The excessive use of energy by humans and their reliance on fossil fuels can be prevented due to acid rain. Only the problem of acid rain can be avoided when the toxic sulfur-dioxide and nitrogen-oxide gases causing acid rain from different sources are prevented from dissolving in the atmosphere. The following measures should be taken in this regard.

    1. To prevent emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, there should be a change in the combustion system of fossil fuels (coal and mineral oil).

    2. Fuel should be used in factories, powerhouses, and automobiles, in which the amount of sulfur is very low.

    3. Before the combustion of fuel, its compounds should be separated, so that the burning of sulfur-dioxide gas is not made.

    4. Sulfur-dioxide mixed with smoke can be separated from the flue gas desulfurization method. For this purpose, lime or calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate are used.

    5. Chemical reactions with sulfuric acid and alkaline solutions of calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide to be made to separate nitrogen oxide gas from the smoke

    6. Conventional fuels such as solar energy, wind energy, etc. have been used more and more.

    7. Apply special filter (bag filter) to the mouth of high chimneys of factories.

    8. Make a colloidal tank where smoke chimneys are there.

    9. The lakes and reservoirs which have increased the acidity in the water should be immersed in it as the lime destroys the acidic water which prevents the destruction of the organism.

    10. Proper mechanical methods should be used to reduce the emissions of pollutant gases especially from automobiles, buses, trucks, tempo, etc.

    11. Keep checking the vehicles from time to time. If there is any technical failure in the engine, then it should be removed immediately.

    12. Awareness should be borne by the government employees and officers, politicians, industrialists, and people of other sections of the society, about the fatal results arising from acid rain showers.


    Acid precipitation is a serious problem which is increasing day by day, we should pay special attention to it. An increase in acid rain can have a profound effect on the health and environment of living organisms and if we do not control it So in the future, it can come in front of us like a deadly problem.

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