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Water Pollution: Effects and side effects

Water Pollution: Effects and side effects

Effect of water pollution

Today "water pollution" has reached dangerous levels and is affecting life to a great extent. Water is continuously polluted for both industrial and domestic reasons. Water pollution has become one of the most serious environmental hazards worldwide.

  Water is becoming contaminated due to excessive use of soap, soda, bleach powder and detergents in homes or the use of metals, acids, alkalis or salts in industries. Its main sources are urban wastewater and industrial wastes which are dumped into untreated rivers. Despite all government efforts, only 10 percent of the total wastewater generated in the cities is being treated and the rest is being discharged into rivers, ponds, and oceans.

Pesticides and chemical fertilizers used in agriculture have also contributed to the problem of water pollution. Furthermore, rapid industrialization has certainly taken the problem of water pollution to alarming levels. Man is badly affected by the problem of water pollution, aquatic animals, aquatic plants and animal birds are also affected. Especially in parts of the sea and rivers, aquatic life has ended due to water pollution.

Effect of water pollution on plants and animals

Effect on the expansion of aquatic plants.

Aquatic plants are severely affected due to water contamination. Due to the excess of moss in contaminated water, sunlight does not reach depth, which affects photosynthesis and the growth of aquatic plants. Due to contaminants in contaminated water, some aquatic weeds such as aquatic ferns and water hyacinth grow, fungi, algae, bacteria, etc. They begin to grow rapidly in sewage.

Increase in toxins.

Due to water pollution, the Ganges River, called the Purifier of the Hindus, has become heavily polluted. The same situation also exists in the Yamuna, Gomti, Chambal and Jhelum rivers. Today, if the Hooghly River in India is considered one of the most polluted water sources in the world, it is also due to water pollution. Due to the contaminated water released by factories around the world, the river water was once so toxic that dead fish were seen landing on the water.

Side effects of water pollution in aquatic animals.

The growth of pollution in marine areas has reached a dangerous condition. Contaminated water has a very bad effect on aquatic animals. Water pollution leads to an excess of moss in the water and a lack of oxygen. According to a survey, the amount of oxygen in one liter of water in most rivers is currently 0.1 cubic cm, compared to 2.5 cubic cm on average in 1950.

Animals affected by water pollution include several species of fish. Due to the spread of oily matter, hydrocarbons on the ocean surface in the oceans, aquatic organisms do not get oxygen and they die. The situation has become so catastrophic that many aquatic species are on the verge of extinction.

Contaminated water also negatively affects the reproductive power of aquatic organisms. It is reducing fertility in fish and plants. In addition, animals suffer from various diseases due to the consumption of contaminated water.

The beauty of nature is over

Contaminated water is not only unsuitable for drinking but also for agriculture. In addition, the sweetness of rivers and lakes is also dying due to contaminated water.

Effect of water pollution on human health.

Effect of water pollution on human health.

Contaminated water has the worst effect on human health. According to the World Health Organization: Worldwide, about five million people die each year due to water pollution and five lakhs of children die. Around 360 people die from lakh in India and 50% of patients admitted to hospitals are patients contaminated due to water. The situation in underdeveloped countries is worse and contaminated water is the main cause of 80 percent of diseases here.

Drinking water isn't safe because of pollutants.

Drinking water becomes smelly and unhygienic because of water contamination. The microbes present in the water break the flavor of the water. When the organic matter present within the infected water starts offevolved to die, they form hydrogen sulfide and ammonia gas, which reasons a bad smell in the water.

Industrial gadgets are also being affected

The capability of business devices is likewise reduced because of water pollutants. The Kanpur leather industry, for example, has been laid low with using infected water within the Ganges.

Contamination of water bodies

Rivers, lakes, seas, and all bodies of groundwater are contaminated through water pollution and human activities are certainly responsible for this. Humans, due to their selfishness, in addition to maintaining the rule of law, also divert various harmful substances produced by various factories into water sources. Harmful elements located in trade waste are salt, miscellaneous chemicals, oil, paint, iron, cadmium. , Containing lead, arsenic, zinc, tin, etc. It is additionally located that some industrial corporations no longer allow radioactive as well. Materials for flow in water sources that are extremely harmful to organisms and plants.

The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has identified some industries as the main polluting industries: alcohol industry, petrochemical industry, tanning industry, paper industry, fertilizer industry, pharmaceutical industry, and sugar industry, etc.

Responsible for the spread of various diseases.

The germs, toxins, and salts needed in water are giving rise to many diseases. Contaminated water is the immediate or indirect cause of more than 80 percent of diseases worldwide. According to an estimate, about 25 million human beings in 35,000 villages in India suffer from cholera. One lakh ninety thousand people of Rajasthan's tribal villages are suffering from various diseases due to drinking water from dirty ponds.

There are many types of pathogenic microorganisms in infected water, which expose many types of diseases, according to scientists, most of the diseases in India are caused by consuming contaminated water using feces. Polluted water causes diseases with polio, cholera, dysentery, jaundice, periodic fever, viral fever, etc. Glass is also discovered in contaminated water, which causes many diseases, including joint pain, kidney, and heart disease.

Children often become ill from drinking contaminated water and sometimes die due to the intensity of illnesses. According to an estimate, 14 children die per hour from contaminated diarrhea due to contaminated water in India.

Waterborne diseases are infectious diseases that are basically spread by infected water. Cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common waterborne diseases that affect most people in the tropical region. Exposure to contaminated water can cause diarrhea, dermatitis, respiratory problems and other diseases present in water bodies. Due to stagnant and untreated water, mosquitoes and many other parasitic pests are produced, etc., which transmit many diseases,

Contaminated water is the same as poison for humans. Due to a large amount of chloride in drinking water, the spinal cord is twisted and the teeth begin to turn yellow. In addition, the bones of people's hands and feet lose their flexibility and their body deforms.

Contaminated water also increases the risk of kidney disease. A large amount of sulfur present in contaminated water is the cause of various respiratory diseases. Due to the increase in the amount of urea in drinking water, stomach disorders also occur. Continued intake of contaminated drinking water causes various stomach disorders, as well as many other diseases such as lumps in the throat, tooth decay, etc.

Radioactive materials generated by nuclear explosions also reach the reservoirs due to the flow of water and contaminate drinking water. When a man uses this water, he has terrible diseases such as leukemia and cancer. The use of this water also increases the risk of having a disabled child.

Nitrate fertilizer and many chemicals, waste used in agricultural land, where groundwater is contaminated due to dispersion and pit latrines. The blue baby spreads the disease in children who consume contaminated drinking water because of the color of the children's skin changes. In this disease, contamination of nitrate in groundwater results in a decrease in the ability of these children to transport oxygen to hemoglobin, which leads to their death.

Impact on day to day life

Contaminated acidic water dissolves water storage containers made of metals, making it difficult to store water. Alkaline substances mixed in contaminated water weaken them in pots and tubes.

Disease caused by pathogenic bacteria in contaminated water.

Contaminated waters are carriers of pathogenic microbes and, therefore, are more harmful to human health. Diseases caused by contaminated waterfall into the following main categories:

By insects:- Filaria, Hydatidists and a variety of worm diseases (which have different types of stomach worms).

By virus:- jaundice (yellow fever), polio, gastroenteritis, colds, infectious hepatitis, chickenpox.

By bacteria:- diarrhea, diarrhea, periodic fever, high fever, cholera, whooping cough, gonorrhea, syphilis, gastroenteritis, dysentery, tuberculosis.

For protozoa:- pyorrhea, dysentery, narcolepsy (epidemic encephalitis), malaria, amebiasis, giardiasis in the gums.

Leptospirosis disease:- In addition to the various bacteria that cause diseases in our body, several types of toxins reach and damage our bodies through the water. These toxins mainly include lead, nickel, silver, arsenic, cadmium, etc.

  • As a result of the consumption of contaminated water in the body of children, excess nitrate causes a disease called 

  • methemoglobinemia that reaches the intestines and causes stomach cancer.

  • There is an excess of fluoride in contaminated water, due to which the disease called fluorosis occurs.

  • Excess salts of iron, manganese, calcium, barium, chromium, copper, eyelashes, boron, nitrate, sulfate, borate, carbonate, etc. in contaminated water it negatively affects human health. Excess magnesium sulfate in the water causes irritation in the intestines.

    The conclusion

    "Water pollution" is dangerous for all kinds of life in this universe. In order to protect humans, plants and other types of organisms, it is important to find solutions for water pollution. There are many diseases spread through the water that is doused and it is necessary to make collective efforts on behalf of all people, society, and government.

    Water pollution: causes and sources

    Water pollution: causes and sources

    Due to the mixing of harmful elements in water resources by human activities and natural processes, water gets polluted and the chemical and biological properties of water deteriorate. Polluted water is very harmful to humans, as well as animals and plants and its use, becomes dangerous for life

    The use of polluted water causes many fatal diseases like paralysis, polio, cholera, TB, jaundice, typhoid, etc. Water pollution is also directly related to the excessive use of water without thinking. Water consumption is very high in cities and dirty water, which contains many toxic chemicals through sewers and drains, which are dumped into natural sources of water. Dirty and polluted water coming out of industrial units is also added to the rivers through drains. Water pollution also spreads due to some natural reasons. Thus, there are two main causes of water pollution: natural and human.

    Natural causes of water pollution

    "Water pollution" usually, during the rains, the fast-flowing water goes into the sewers and at the same time, it contains minerals in the soil, leaves of trees, hummus (a black organic material) that rot after the remains of plants and animals. , Human and animal excretions, etc. are found. If water is being collected anywhere, the soil contains toxic parts such as arsenic, lead, and mercury, etc., then they coalesce within the water and pollute the water. When the quantity becomes excessive, the water becomes toxic.

    In addition to more toxic substances, small amounts of toxic substances, such as metal elements, cobalt, molybdenum, tin, vanadium, nickel, barium, etc., are already naturally present in water.

    Human causes of water pollution

    Wastewater gets into clean water through various human activities and thus water gets polluted. Some such sources of water pollution are as follows:

    1.Industrial waste

    2.Agricultural waste

    3.Domestic Waste


    5.Radioactive waste

    6.thermal pollution

    7.Oil pollution

    Industrial waste

    The number of factories has increased manifold today due to rapid industrialization, although those factories are not being disposed of properly, leaving them directly into ponds, rivers, canals and alternative water sources. Because of this, aquatic organisms, plants, and animals are being adversely affected and at the same time, it is unfit to drink water.

    In almost every industry, many materials are left unused after the production process known as industrial waste. These substances contain acids, alkalis, salts, oils, fats, and toxic chemicals and when they flow into the water, the water becomes toxic. Waste material from various industries like the textile industry, animal skin industry,  leather industry, liquor industry, pharmaceutical industry, paper industry, sugar industry, food processing industry, chemical industry, etc., are being flowed into water sources.

    Most commercial wastes contain organic materials that are rotten by bacteria but this method is incredibly slow and water is contaminated due to this. Apart from these materials, plastic is also included in industrial wastes.

     In addition to these materials, plastics are also included in industrial wastes that are not as toxic as toxic chemicals, but it has been found that seabirds, fish and other sea creatures risk their lives by eating plastic residues. Huh. The natural color of pure drinking water is light brown, dark water coming out of color factories and industries have made it rare to actually find pure water.

    Agricultural waste

    To boost production, new strategies are being used in agriculture. Due to the Green Revolution, the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. has increased rapidly along with new technologies in agriculture, but on the other hand, our remarkable success in agriculture is giving value to the environment, which has to face heavy losses. 

    Due to various farming practices, soil erosion has also increased considerably, disrupting the flow of rivers and causing erosion on their banks. The lakes are gradually leveling and their water is getting contaminated due to the deposition of mud and mud

    Domestic waste

    The sources of water get polluted due to bathing, washing clothes, bathing animals and cleaning utensils in ponds and canals. Household wastes generated as a result of various daily chores in homes such as rotten fruits and vegetables, dirty water of detergents, kitchen stove ash and other waste materials and sewage first flow into drains and finally water bodies.

    Nowadays, synthetic detergents are being used more in the cleaning work, which has become a permanent source of water pollution by mixing in water sources. After domestic use such as bathing, washing, etc., polluted water flows through drains into rivers and ponds where the situation is already critical due to uncontrolled population pressure on water resources.


    Disposal of excreta is also a serious problem due to population growth and sewage is directly flowing into rivers and canals, contaminating our main sources of water.

    Sewage mainly consists of human excreta released from domestic and public toilets, and human excreta contains both organic and inorganic types of contaminants. Most of these contaminants are solid organic waste, dead micro-organisms and sometimes living bacteria. Due to the excess of organic materials, various types of bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, and algae rapidly increase contaminated sewage.

    In fact, the term water pollution was first used to draw attention to water pollution arising from human waste. If bacteria commonly found in human intestines are found in water, it is certainly a serious condition and such contaminated water is completely unfit for human use.

    If untreated contaminated sewage is being mixed directly into the water sources through drainage, it certainly causes serious water pollution. Due to the excrement being done by open areas, humans, and animals, sewage gets mixed with rainwater directly into water sources and pollutes the water. Such pollution is called organic water pollution.

    According to an estimate, 10 lakh people produce 5 lakh tons of sewage in a year, of which a large part goes directly into the sea passing through rivers. According to an estimate in India, out of 142 cities with a population of one lakh, only 8 cities have complete sewage disposal facilities. Out of these, only one operating system of waste disposal is available in 62 cities whereas no proper arrangement has been made in 72 cities.

    Radioactive waste

    Due to nuclear explosions, a large number of hot waste particles come into contact with the air, then these particles spread far into the air and, in many ways, these particles merge into water sources more than the organic phenomenon. Huh. And then through the food chain, these particles reach the human body. The disintegration of radioactive particles is extremely slow and due to this, they keep the water toxic for a long time. Also, when nuclear tests are conducted underwater and then the particles of these wastes directly dissolve in the water and pollute the water.

    Thermal pollution

    Nuclear power is mainly spreading thermal pollution through the method of generating electricity through excess steam in power-based power plants. Rivers and ponds are used for the prevention of hyperthermal effects of the various nuclear reactors of these plants. is. After use, this water is released back into lakes, rivers or the sea, which results in water temperature and adversely affecting aquatic life.

     This leads to a lack of oxygen in the aqueous environment. Increasing water temperature not only reduces the solubility of oxygen in the water but the amount of salt in the water also increases, which is extremely harmful to fish and other aquatic organisms.

    Oily pollution

    Oily pollution is spreading due to the flow of oil and oil wastes into the rivers and various sources of oil by industrial plants. A fire has also occurred once due to the flow of waste from the petroleum refinery within the river in Munger, Bihar. Oil pollution in rivers has emerged as a serious threat. The remaining oil after cooking, as well as the use of petrol and diesel in vehicles and their residue, is being immersed in some form or the other. Oily pollution is spreading in the oceans due to oil seeping into the oceans from oil carrier ships. Many times there is a fierce fire in the tankers of these ships. Causes of accidents also cause oil spills in the oceans and cause oily pollution. According to an estimate, 50 million to 10 million tons of petroleum products leak into the sea every year.

    Human causes of water pollution

    Other reason

    •  People from villages, towns or cities who live along the rivers are dependent on the rivers for many activities along the rivers. The use of detergents, soaps, ashes, etc. for various rituals and activities such as religious prayers, cleaning, and immersion of idols and worship material, flower garlands, etc. pollution in rivers increased manifold.

    •  In addition, some cities are located on the banks of rivers where after a person dies, his body is thrown into the water. Carcass rotting produces bacteria that pollute the water apart from the stench.

    • It has been generally found that rivers on the edge of cities become highly impure as the waste of industries located in cities is often dumped into rivers without any treatment.

    • Even when cleaning agricultural pumps, for washing vehicles and agricultural equipment, contaminated water is dumped into rivers and hence pesticides and chemical fertilizers flow into rivers and rivers during this water Pollute. In this way, aquatic animals and other animals present in the polluted waters of rivers and the sea are causing destruction.

    • As a result of industrial enterprise, the quantity of factories has increased manifold nowadays, however, the waste generated by them is diverted into canals, ponds, and rivers and thus polluting it. This impure water is adversely affecting the animals and plants there, as this water is not suitable at all for drinking and other consumption.

    •  As a result of excessive population growth, large amounts of human waste flow into rivers and canals, polluting rivers and alternative water sources.

    • Waste generated in homes and factories, bandages thrown by hospitals, medicines, plaster, etc., flow into rivers and increase the risk of floods and other natural disasters along with alternative water source pollution.

    • People are bathing, washing clothes, bathing animals, especially in village ponds and canals, utensils are being cleaned which is polluting the water sources.

    The conclusion

    Water is an integral part of our environment in which we live. It is one of the basic necessities necessary for human life. A large part of the human body is water and because of this, without clean water, a human can live only a few days. The lack of clean water cannot imagine the life of any person and even the entire human civilization can be in danger due to the lack of clean water. Despite knowing all this, human beings continue to pollute water from rivers, ponds, wells, lakes, etc., which is definitely a dangerous situation.

    Our water sources have been negatively affected due to population growth, industrialization, and other reasons. Even our sacred river the Ganges could not remain intact due to water pollution. Previously, the water of the Ganges River was clean even after maintaining it for many years, but today this situation has changed. Together with the Ganges, the water sources of many other rivers have also been contaminated.

    Despite the law enacted by the government, polyethylene bags are used openly and are thrown away after use, which is found in water sources and is contaminated if the water stinks or If the taste is not good, the water does not It is drinkable, but due to lack of water, people also use contaminated water under compulsion.

    In fact, rivers are the pillar of the ecological system and it is an integral part of the creation of human, flora and fauna life. In fact, a river has a complete ecological unit in which, in an ideal state, there is a balance between all organisms and a dietary chain is formed between them, but this is now ending due to water pollution. Biodiversity is declining as the entire food chain becomes unbalanced and many aquatic organisms and many other animals are likely to become extinct.

    If we have to protect human civilization from the dangers caused by water pollution, then it is necessary to take measures to prevent the degradation of this natural resource. Appropriate measures must be taken to protect water, which is like the nectar for life,

    How to do Organic Farming


    How to do Organic Farming

    Organic agriculture has been practiced around the world since ancient times, before, cows were raised along with agriculture, it was very beneficial to raise agriculture and livestock together, which was good for animals and the environment and it Traditional agriculture was very useful. After the population explosion, there has been pressure to increase production in all countries, due to which the country has moved more towards chemical agriculture and now it is seeing bad results.

    "Organic farming" is an example of natural agriculture, in which chemical substances such as fertilizers or pesticides are not used. Organic agriculture is done using only natural fertilizers such as organic waste, agricultural waste, animal waste, fertilizer, etc. It basically helps in maintaining soil health and making it good and fertile. Let us know what is organic farming and why farmers should do organic farming.

    Definition of organic farming

    Organic farming emphasizes using only organic materials and bio-fertilizers to provide growth and nutrients to crops in a pollution-free environment. Although worldwide, the practice of organic agriculture and good crop production has existed since ancient times.

    Organic agriculture is a major effort to keep the soil healthy and fertilizers through rotation of crops. After each crop, farmers also grow other fruit plants to recharge the crop with soil with atmospheric nitrogen (an important mineral needed for crop production). These fruitful plants recharge nitrogen in the soil through their root glands and make them fertile.

    Need for organic farming

    In earlier times, grain was brought from abroad for food, agriculture produced very little, but there was an unprecedented increase in population. Then came the era of the Green Revolution, India, and many other countries saw an unprecedented increase in food production between 1966-67 and 1991. Fertilizers, pesticides and indiscriminate chemicals were used to achieve the goal of grain production, which also increased the toxicity of the earth. Many useful bacteria were destroyed by the soil and fertility was also reduced.

    Today production has stagnated due to the lack of balanced fertilizers, now the defenders of the Green Revolution are also assuming that due to excessive use of these chemicals many types of environmental problems and health problems have started to emerge. Humans and animals and soil fertility are decreasing, as there is an imbalance of nutrients in the soil. Due to the decrease in soil fertility, it has become necessary to use more and more organic fertilizers to maintain the level of productivity.

    Farmers are drowning in debt by purchasing expensive fertilizers and pesticides, worsening their economic condition. Human use of chemical foods has caused physical disabilities and serious diseases such as cancer. To solve this problem, the modern concept of organic agriculture has emerged as a suitable alternative. Since the use of any type of chemical inputs is prohibited in organic agriculture and farmers must collect all the resources necessary for crop production.

    Therefore, it is very important to train farmers on the production of resources, their proper use and the techniques of organic farming management. Some other reasons are as follows,

    1. The organic quality of the soil can be maintained.
    2. Human health can be protected.
    3. To conserve natural resources.
    4. Bring stability to agricultural production.
    5. To prevent environmental pollution.
    6. Production costs can be reduced.
    Organic farming is an important way to maintain natural farming. The main objective is crop production by reducing the use of chemicals and replacing them with organic products. Through organic agriculture, the environment remains pure and less polluted and also helps maintain life on the planet. Additionally, organic agriculture is also imported to provide healthy foods to the people.

     When people consume pure and healthy foods produced by the biological process, they are protected from many types of deadly diseases. In addition, natural fertilizers used in organic agriculture make the soil more fertile. Cultivating crops and using natural resources for the future without harming the environment and using them successfully for success in crop production is called farming and the satisfaction of various human needs is sustainable agriculture.

    How to do Organic Farming (2)

    Main items of Organic farming

    Dung manure-: All farmers raise livestock along with agriculture. If the farmer uses his available agricultural waste and animal manure to make manure, he can produce high-quality manure himself. To make good manure, dig a well 1 meter wide, 1 meter deep or 5 to 8 meters long depending on the requirement, and plow a thin layer of cow manure and animal feed on a layer of waste. Agriculture is available. Wet well and cover well and close it with mud and cow dung. In this way, after 3 innings in two months, good quality fertilizer will be prepared.

    Earthworm manure-: In this earthworms convert cow manure and other waste into good quality organic manure in a short time. This type of organic manure increases soil holding capacity. It is good for increasing soil fertility, reducing termite infections and providing essential nutrients in balanced amounts to plants.

    Organic fertilizers-: Organic fertilizers are those that are obtained from animals or plants. It mainly contains agricultural waste, animal droppings, etc. In this, all essential nutrients for crops are present only in small quantities. In these, the soil obtains all the nutrients that the crops take for their growth. In modern agriculture, intensive agricultural practices are being adopted, due to which there is a shortage of organic matter in the soil by continuously taking multiple crops in the same field.

    Because the structure and soil fertility are negatively affected. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers is very important to keep soil organic matter stable. At the same time, organic manure has a good effect on soil composition, air, temperature, water retention capacity, a number of bacteria and their reactions, base exchange capacity, and erosion prevention ground.

    Organic fertilizers have been used in traditional agriculture for a long time in our country. The main one is composted manure, which is prepared in cities with garbage, other agricultural waste, and cow manure. Manure has more nitrogen and phosphorus than other fertilizers. Almost all essential nutrients are found in organic fertilizers.

    Green manure-:  soil fertility is decreasing with the use of chemical fertilizers on the rise. In such a situation, farmers can not only obtain a good production by using green manure at this time, but they can also increase soil fertility, which is called a subsidiary crop whose cultivation is mainly to increase the nutrient content in the soil and organic. It matters in that. It is done for the purpose of compliance. In this way, green manure will be useful for improving soil, reducing soil erosion, nitrogen fixation, soil structure and increasing water retention capacity.

    Dung gas plant manure-: In organic farming, the slurry extracted from the manure gas plant can be delivered directly to the field as liquid manure. Soon it benefits the crop, after mixing cow dung in the soil after a long process, its nutrients are available for cultivation. Collected manure can be crushed and thrown directly into the trash. Two cubic meters of the gas plant produces 10 tons of biogas suspension every year.

    Nitrogen is found in it 2 to 2.5 percent, phosphorus 1.0 percent, and potash 1.0 percent. The thin suspension contains 2 percent nitrogen as ammonium nitrogen. Therefore, if it is administered in drains with irrigation water, its immediate effect can be clearly seen in the crop. Part of the nitrogen in the dried slurry is poured into the air, 5 tons of grout per hectare must be poured into irrigated agriculture and 10 tons of grout into irrigated agriculture

    Benefits of organic farming

    1. The quality of the land is maintained and improved by this agriculture.

    2. Through this method, the environment is free from contamination.

    3. Have good quality returns

    4. This not only maintains the fertilizing power of the earth but also increases it.

    5. It is also very important for the livestock of the farmer and also for other animals.

    6. It costs less and the profits are higher.

    7. It requires less water. Organic farming conserves water.

    8. Organic food is sold at an expensive price.

    9. Agricultural support agencies will not only be safe but will also increase.

    Disadvantages of organic farming

    1. The excessive cost of the crops produced: compared to traditional agriculture, farmers do not obtain an excessive yield through organic agriculture. Because of this, its yield is much more expensive than traditional agricultural products.

    2.  The high cost of production: organic agriculture requires more labor for farmers to maintain various tasks associated with it, which increases the cost of crop production


    Organic agriculture is necessary to maintain life on Earth. Organic farming is necessary to recharge soil fertility naturally and to produce healthy foods. Although farmers are affected by low crop yields, organic agriculture is necessary for future generations to lead a natural life while maintaining ecological and environmental balance. If our dear reader is satisfied with the above information, please, like and share the article on your social networks.

    What is Ozone layer depletion? Causes & Effects

    Today it is true that no creature can survive without air. The element of the air that keeps us alive is oxygen gas. Currently, due to the increasing use of many types of chemicals and the indiscriminate felling of trees, the ozone layer is rapidly decreasing. Due to the decomposition of the ozone layer over the years, ozone has been many holes in the layer, and now harmful radiation is entering the atmosphere. The decomposition of the ozone layer increases the negative effects of diseases such as cancer.

    what is ozone layer depletion causes& effects

    what is ozone layer depletion?

    "The ozone layer" is a type of protective shield that protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays that come from the Sun. It is located at an altitude of approximately 20 to 40 kilometers above the Earth's surface. This layer acts to prevent the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays from reaching Earth. In other words, it is known as the ozone hole, if it is ultraviolet rays. When it comes to Earth, it causes great damage to trees, plants, animals and the environment.

    Artificial chemicals such as halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and chlorofluorocarbons are also called ozone degradable substances, which are the main causes of this problem. These compounds enter the stratosphere after they are emitted on the surface and there they emit halogen atoms through a process called photovoltage. This causes the decomposition of oxygen (O2) in ozone (O3), which reduces the amount of ozone and causes it to decompose.

    Who discovered the ozone layer and how?

    The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by Henri Bushen and the French physicist Charles Fabbri, the scientists concluded that some element was absorbing the necessary ultraviolet rays, creating a black area in the spectrum and in the ultraviolet portion. There is no visible radiation. When these scientists looked at the spectrum of light coming from the Sun, they discovered that some of Ale were the color of a wavelength lower than 310 nm, it did not come to Earth by solar radiation! This part of the spectrum is called the ultraviolet part,

    That part of the spectrum of light that was not visible from the Sun perfectly matched an element called ozone, which has led scientists to discover that ozone in the Earth's atmosphere is the element that absorbs ultraviolet rays.

    Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion

    The causes of ozone layer depletion are broadly divided into natural causes and man-made causes. Man-made effects are many more than natural causes. Both these types of effects are described below -

    Natural reason

    Apart from chemicals, it is believed that some other natural phenomena originating in the stratosphere such as sunlight and winds are responsible for affecting the ozone layer. The losses caused by it are less than about 2 -3% and temporary. It is also believed that volcanic eruptions also mainly contribute to the decay of the ozone layer.


    Indiscriminate cutting of trees on earth also causes the ozone layer to decay. Due to the cutting of trees, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere decreases, so ozone gas molecules are not formed.

    Reason made by man

    The indiscriminate use of a chlorine-based substance causes the depletion of the ozone layer. They are widely used in many manufacturing plants, aerosols and refrigerants and when released into the air, they have a detrimental effect on the ozone layer. However, it has been found that only one chlorine atom can destroy about 100,000 ozone molecules.

    Air circulates chlorine-based substances in the stratosphere. Ozone molecules are unstable and react and break down the chlorine atom in CFCs, resulting in the formation of an oxygen molecule and a single free-flowing oxygen atom. Chlorine in the atmosphere is prone to extreme danger,

    The processes involve many reactions, but some simplified reactions are as follows:
    C lO + O —–> C l + O 2
    C l + O 3 —–> C lO + O 2

    Net effect: O 3 + O —–> 2 O 2

    In addition, chemicals such as methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halogen and substances such as foam, dyes, air conditioners, refrigerators, plastics, etc., which we use mainly in daily life, cause depletion of the ozone layer.

    These substances are mainly used in electronic entrepreneurs. The gases used in air conditioners are harmful to ozone because the molecules of these gases are capable of destroying millions of ozone molecules.

    Carbon tetrachloride: also used as selected solvents and fire extinguishers.

    Methylchloroform: It is commonly used in industries such as steam degradation, cleaning, chemical technology, and adhesives.

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs): they are used instead of CFCs, but they are not harmful to the ozone layer like CFCs.

    Helen: they are used as fire retardants such as water or fire extinguishing chemicals.
    what is ozone layer depletion causes& effects-3

    Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion

    Pores produced through the depletion of the ozone layer allow harmful ultraviolet rays to enter the Earth's ecosystem. The sun's ultraviolet rays are taken into account for a variety of environmental and health-related problems.

    1. Effect on Vegetation

    • UV radiation affects the system of photosynthesis in plant life and also changes the variety and timing of plant-assisted flora.
    • The plant boom is without delay from UV-B radiation.

    2. Effect on people

    Accelerated skin aging: Due to the harmful consequences of ultraviolet rays, humans with white holes and skin have to suffer rashes and other skin diseases.

    Eye damage: Direct exposure to UV rays can cause problems such as image playing cards (blurring) and cataracts.

    Skin cancer: The promotion of ultraviolet rays causes many forms of skin cancer in humans. These include malignant cancers, basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

    Various effects: It affects the DNA of humans and animals. These are related to lung issues such as breathing, allergies, and similar problems. Disease, direct propagation of ultraviolet rays. If a pregnant woman comes into contact with those rays, they must face the dangerous effects of irreparable pregnancy loss.

    3. Effects on Amphibians

    Ozone deficiency affects the survival cycle of many species of amphibians at multiple stages. Some of its following results are given below.

    • It accommodates conduct and habits.
    • It causes deformity in some species.
    • It damages the retina of the eye, causing blindness.
    • These inhibit the growth and development of larvae.

    4. Impact on the marine environment

    • A special type of ultraviolet rays penetrate into the sea for several kilometers and damage marine life.
    • Plant planktons and improved bacterioplankton are at risk of ultraviolet rays. Ultraviolet radiation has a profound impact on the lives of microbes that affect the food chain as well as the entire ecosystem.

    5. Other effects

    In addition to these, ozone, present within low ecosystems, acts as a pollutant and greenhouse gas, caused by international warming and weather. Studies have proved that much less atmospheric ozone has a longer lifespan than stratospheric ozone, causing less damage.

    Who is responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer?

    The decomposition of the ozone layer is particularly attributed to industries caused by humans, which are found in almost all pioneer countries including unitary states. India, Europe, and China are the main causes of chemical compounds that damage the ozone layer. It is largely responsible that the governments of many countries have banned the use of chemical compounds that harm the ozone layer, however, it is not possible to use the government that prohibits them due to the fact of corruption. They should be banned most effectively. , The enterprise may use these chemical substances. Maintain to use for your personal benefit. They must be doing. To protect the ozone layer against harm, most people should be educated about it and taught to demonstrate to industries that are causing pollution and, if seen, their court cases to their officials in the united states Are related to. And is doing a lot in institutions to save the ozone layer.

    Measures to prevent the decomposition of the ozone layer
    Decomposition of the ozone layer, increased use of many types of chemicals and indiscriminate felling of trees are rapidly reducing the ozone layer. The solution to the problem of ozone depletion is very simple and we can adapt it very easily in our daily lives. We should encourage definitive change so that ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are not released. We must plant more trees to maintain oxygen content in the upper atmosphere and increase the number of ozone molecules. To reduce the negative impact on the ozone layer, we should advise industry owners and its operations to use less of these substances and processes.

    The conclusion

    Ozone deficiency is a problem that needs our immediate attention. The main reason for the depletion of the ozone layer is the emission of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. Due to holes in the ozone layer, harmful rays of ultraviolet B enter the Earth's atmosphere and produce a variety of harmful results. Such international initiatives can significantly reduce the production of harmful chemicals and can also be very useful in preventing damage to the ozone layer. But still, each person should contribute more to the preservation of the ozone layer and take necessary measures in their daily lives. So we can provide a healthy and safe environment for ourselves and plants and animals

    Carbon Footprint: Definition, Causes, Effects & Solutions


    Carbon Footprint Definition, Causes, Effects & Solutions

    In the race for progress, we have played so much with nature that ozone-depleting substances have started accumulating in the world's climate. This development is mainly responsible for raising world temperature. Since these gases protect the Earth from heating up into space. According to an estimate, before the century, temperatures around the world can be around 2.5 ° C or 3.8 ° F. Carbon emissions have adverse effects on the environment, for example, intense heat during summer, extreme cold in winter, Changes in storm, changes in land temperature, rise in sea levels, softening in icy masses, unexpected recession, drought, and flood, etc. The answer to this catastrophe will be to cut every person's carbon footprint.

    Definition of Carbon Footprint

    "The carbon footprint" has been taken from the environmental footprint. However, this is part of the life cycle assessment. The carbon footprint of an individual, organization, or object can be evaluated based on the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. In other words, the carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that are emitted by the life cycle of any product or service. The carbon footprint represents the total carbon emissions by any unit, person, or product.

    How to calculate a carbon footprint? How does one influence the environment in general?

     Almost everything we do such as our behavior, clothing, and food, and so on, all contain some amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that promotes carbon footprint. Scientists have given the principle of carbon footprint to measure it, through which we can measure it. The carbon footprint we produce in a day, month or year is the carbon footprint.

    Carbon Footprint evaluates the impact of each of the activities, from product manufacturing, lifestyle or running the company to climate change. Per capita input includes activities such as fuel usage, spending, distance traveled, calorie consumption and spending behavior. The emission factor maintains the relevant life cycle as much as possible. On average, people living in a city emit  4.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide in a year. By keeping the individual carbon footprints low, the Earth can be saved from the outbreak of climate change.

    A person's carbon footprint can be calculated by the major categories of consumer such as food, products, housing, travel, and services. In broad terms, a carbon footprint not only takes into account the CO2 emissions of a particular activity but also estimates the emissions of all other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Emissions from airport trails also affect the climate.

    Due to the carbon footprint

    1. Industrial Revolution

    With the onset of the modern era, the use of fuel on a large scale began, which led to the emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide. During that time, forests and plants absorbed harmful gases such as carbon dioxide. But they were destroyed for farming and growing wood, land, minerals and buildings needs.

    Who has made such a situation today? Whatever carbon dioxide was first produced by humans was absorbed by the surrounding trees and forests. Trees absorb oxygen by absorbing carbon dioxide in the air, but today there are not enough trees to absorb the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment.

    2. Modern lifestyle

    If we count the cars of every person on this planet, it would result in over 8 billion cars - enough to create a crisis for mankind. Apart from the pollution of the vehicles we use, there are many other reasons for the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. At the same time, 2.5 per liter of carbon dioxide emissions has been estimated by petrol and diesel.
    We live in an era where our image is evaluated on the basis of electronic devices, an assumption that has contributed to the growth in the business of many equipment manufacturers around the world. Every electronic device such as a mobile handset processor promotes carbon dioxide in the air.

    3. Use of Gas Fuel

    The burning of fossil fuels in the environment emits carbon and other greenhouse gases. The electricity we use is mostly made up of fossil fuels (such as coal, natural gas, and oil). The more electricity we use, the more fuel is consumed to produce electricity, which further increases carbon dioxide. In fact, to meet human needs it always requires some energy activity emitting carbon dioxide.
    Most of the goods we use are made due to non-renewable resources being victimized in factories. Additionally, they are sent to far-flung areas by freight trains. Which consumes excessive fossil fuels.

    4. Air travel

    Traveling became quite helpful with essential services provided by many airlines. Employment of this method of travel is increasing rapidly; Cities with greater diversity are experiencing this method of airports. However, 95 kg of greenhouse gas is emitted by the craft.

    5. food

    The food we tend to eat contributes greatly to our carbon footprint, especially when we eat processed foods or eat foods that are not made domestically.

    Carbon Footprint Definition, Causes, Effects & Solutions-1

    Effects of carbon footprint

    The carbon footprint represents the amount of carbon found in the atmosphere through human activities, the main reason being transportation and power generation. The carbon footprint generated by human activities has taken a very dangerous form and is also a concern for the environment.

    Some of the main side effects of carbon footprint are described below.

    • Crisis on aquatic life

    Carbon footprints generated by human activities also affect the life of aquatic animals like sea whales, dolphins, turtles, etc. on a large scale. Many types of ships, whether for transportation or for fishing, all leave their carbon footprints in the water while traveling in deep water.

    Plastic is often eaten by sea turtles, considering it to be their natural food, which is often found dead due to its digestion. Due to fuel and waste spread by ships, thousands of dead fish are found on the shore. Because of this pollution spread in the water, the water is not able to breathe them.

    • The exploitation of natural resources

     Human benefit functions such as factories also play an important role in the exploitation of natural resources, emitting significant amounts of carbon footprint into the environment. Many tons of chemical wastewater coming out of these factories are found in the sources and rivers. Due to which water becomes contaminated and is not usable. Chemical pollution also affects terrestrial life besides destroying aquatic life. Due to this pollution, many people suffer from diseases and diseases for a lifetime.

    Apart from this, man-made carbon footprint plays an important role in damage to natural resources, causing great harm to the environment. Erosion arises from activities such as mining, causing water and dust to accumulate in the pits. Chemicals generated during mining operations not only pollute soil and water but also cause the destruction of forests, which affects the environmental balance.

    Human activities such as transport and production produce many tons of greenhouse gases and many types of pollutants, such as carbon-mono oxide, carbon-dioxide. This reduces air quality and also reduces the amount of oxygen in the air.

    • Extinction of natural habitats

    Due to many human activities, life and natural resources from the earth are coming to an end. The carbon footprint generated by human activities is one of the main reasons for the extinction of natural habitats, due to which there is a shortage of food and space for humans and animals to survive. Due to the extinction of this natural habitat, the conflict between animals and animals is increasing due to resources.

    As such, the natural habitat of humans and animals is almost on the verge of extinction due to the construction of industries, roads, mining, and highways. For the construction of new roads and factories, forests and thousands of trees spread over several acres are cut down, due to which green forests are being converted into man-made concrete forests.

    • Emission of greenhouse gases

    Many human activities, such as electricity generation and transport, emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the environment, raising the Earth's normal temperature. An increase in the level of greenhouse gases increases the temperature of the earth extra, which is called the effect of greenhouse gases. Transportation alone increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 35 percent, which is one of the important greenhouse gases. Many plastic manufacturing companies also increase carbon footprint by a considerable amount, allowing millions in the atmosphere. Tons of greenhouse gases are emitted.

    • Weather exchange

    Climate change is also one of the main effects of carbon footprint. Naturally present greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, vapor, help to keep the temperature of the Earth normal by preventing the sun's radiation. But the amount of this naturally present greenhouse gases is increased by greenhouse gases arising from transportation and factories.

    An increase in the number of greenhouse gases leads to the ill effects of a greenhouse, such as an increase in the Earth's surface temperature. As the Earth's temperature rises above normal, we may face severe problems related to many environments such as the melting of glaciers and increasing sea level.

    How to reduce carbon footprint solution/carbon footprint

    1. Carbon trading

    It is an agreement on carbon emissions, each country has a ceiling on carbon emissions. To the extent that carbon emissions are allowed. If a country or company fails to meet the following emission targets, it may face penal provisions imposed by England and other European countries.

    Carbon commerce is one of the first of all efforts to scale greenhouse gas emissions. During this trade, the respective countries, groups, and corporations can transfer technology and technology for every option so that carbon emissions can be controlled for precise speed.

    According to this trade agreement, developed countries that emit excessive carbon are entitled to release carbon into the atmosphere of countries emitting less carbon dioxide. Under this arrangement, he can buy the rights in the atmosphere of low carbon-emitting countries and under this, he can help in the environmental schemes of his poor countries.

    Countries that easily achieve emission standards can obtain additional pollution standard certificates and can sell these pollution standard certificates to those other areas. Those who are unable to achieve carbon emission standards.

    Planting trees on vacant land is also a direct solution to this problem. According to an estimate, by planting trees on millions of hectares of vacant land, they can earn billions of rupees from the carbon business. This trade, on the one hand, will provide the development of forests and the protection of wild animals. On the other hand, it will help local residents to obtain wood and other types of forest products.

    2. Small steps and big effect

    The vehicles you use, along with electricity, your entire lifestyle contributes to increasing the carbon footprint. To scale back the dioxide within the atmosphere, you must use things judiciously, doing a greater amount of walking. Transport and reusable goods should be used and only regionally manufactured things should be used.

    With many straightforward and sensible measures, you will be able to cut your personal carbon footprint with success and build a small little contribution to change the surroundings and save the world. Some of these efforts are as follows:

    1. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, you are requested to use public transport, instead of using your private vehicles to make short journeys.

    2. If your workplace is near your home, you can try going there by walking or using a bicycle. Due to which your health will also improve.

    3. Save energy as much as possible. To reduce the impact of carbon footprint. Energy star rated products should be used as star rated devices save energy by up to 15 percent. These savings also reduce your additional expenses.

    4. Another way to reduce carbon dioxide is a plantation, that's why we should plant more and more trees. Because a tree absorbs about one ton of carbon dioxide gas during its lifetime.

    5. To eliminate your carbon footprint completely, you can plant more trees and become 'carbon-free' by taking care of them.

    6. Avoid traveling short distances from your vehicles. Driving enhances your personal carbon footprint. If more people use cars for personal travel, it only promotes traffic congestion and poor air quality results.

    7. Washing clothes should be used for washing clothes only when the clothes are more than enough.

    8. We should use a more energy-efficient dishwasher and leave our utensils to dry in an open environment instead of drying them with electronic heat.

    9. Adequate air pressure should be kept in the tires of your vehicles, by doing this we can save up to 3 percent fuel per month.

     10. For plastic, glass, metal, and paper, etc. we should adopt the process of recycling.

    11. Foods are made using lots of energy. That is why we should never waste food items and always eat fresh food.
    Energy consumption can be reduced by using locally available foods.

    12. We should always consume organic food. An estimated 14 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the US are due to the production and transportation of food. No official data has been prepared for our country, but considering its vastness, diversity, and variety of tastes of the logo, the figure of 8-10 percent can be estimated for this. We should use organic and locally manufactured foods. As responsible citizens, we should support organic farming in a big way and buy only the products grown by such a process.

    13. In addition, by reducing meat consumption, we can reduce the carbon footprint.

    14. Avoid using canned, processed items. Small tasks done by you can prove to be helpful to save the world.

    15. Use natural (renewable) energy as much as possible.

    16. Similarly, when the devices are left in standby mode they produce several kilos of carbon dioxide. Therefore, if not used, they should be discontinued.

    17. Simultaneously, we should use electronic products of permanent utility. As responsible citizens, we should stop the process of repeatedly changing our mobile handsets to control our carbon footprint.

    Our Team

  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers
  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers
  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers
  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers
  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers
  • Syed Faizan AliMaster / Computers